Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán - Wikipedia
Main · Videos; Dating bruges encyclopedia dellitaliano treccani online dating · omar rayo biografia yahoo dating · the mentalist 6x22 online dating · bolkar the. Acta resumida. Corporate Author(s):: NU. CEPAL; Date Issued: ; 15 p. UN symbol: E/CN/AC/SR Show full data. Event(s):: NU. CEPAL. Omar Rayo Reyes (January 20, – June 7, ) was a renowned Colombian painter, At the time Rayo was dating a friend of hers from university, but Rayo soon began going out with Pizarro instead, and she moved in with him in
It remained a part of the Viceroyalty of Peru untilwhen it joined the newly created Viceroyalty of New Granada ; within the viceroyalty, however, Ecuador was awarded its own audiencia inallowing it to deal directly with Madrid on certain matters. The Quito Audienciawhich was both a court of justice and an advisory body to the viceroy, consisted of a president and several judges oidores. The most common form in which the Spanish occupied the land was the encomienda. By the early 17th century, there were some encomiendas in Ecuador.
Although many consisted of quite sizable haciendas, they were generally much smaller than the estates commonly found elsewhere in South America. A multitude of reforms and regulations did not prevent the encomienda from becoming a system of virtual slavery of the Native Ecuadorians, estimated at about one-half the total Ecuadorian population, who lived on them.
In the president of the audiencia recognized that many Spaniards were accepting grants only to sell them and undertake urban occupations, and he stopped distributing new lands to Spaniards; however, the institution of the encomienda persisted until nearly the end of the colonial period.
The coastal lowlands north of Manta were conquered, not by the Spanish, but by blacks from the Guinean coast who, as slaves, were shipwrecked en route from Panama to Peru in The blacks killed or enslaved the native males and married the females, and within a generation they constituted a population of zambos that resisted Spanish authority until the end of the century and afterwards managed to retain a great deal of political and cultural independence.
The coastal economy revolved around shipping and trade. Guayaquil, despite being destroyed on several occasions by fire and incessantly plagued by either yellow fever or malaria, was a center of vigorous trade among the colonies, a trade that was technically illegal under the mercantilist philosophy of the contemporary Spanish rulers. Guayaquil also became the largest shipbuilding center on the west coast of South America before the end of the colonial period.
The Ecuadorian economy, like that in the mother country, suffered a severe depression throughout most of the 18th century. Textile production dropped an estimated 50 to 75 percent between and Ecuador's cities gradually fell into ruins, and by the elite was reduced to poverty, selling haciendas and jewelry in order to subsist. The Native Ecuadorian population, in contrast, probably experienced an overall improvement in its situation, as the closing of the obrajes commonly led Native Ecuadorians to work under less arduous conditions on either haciendas or traditional communal lands.
- History of Ecuador
- Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán
Missions in the Oriente were abandoned, and many of the best schools and the most efficient haciendas and obrajes lost the key that made them outstanding institutions in colonial Ecuador. Jesuits of Quito during the Colonial era[ edit ] Major square of Quito.
Painting of 18th century. Quito Painting Colonial School. Father Rafael Ferrer was the first Jesuita de Quito Jesuit of Quito to explore and found missions in the upper Amazon regions of South America from towhich at that period belonged to the Audiencia of Quitothat was a part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until the Audiencia of Quito was transferred to the newly created Viceroyalty of New Granada in Father Rafael Ferrer was martyred when an apostate native killed him in The title of the memoire is called Nuevo Descubrimiento del gran rio de las Amazonas, and it was used by academics as a fundamental reference pertaining to the Amazon region.
Jesuit Fathers de la Cueva and Raimundo de Santacruz opened up 2 new routes of communication with Quito, through the Pastaza and Napo rivers. Between andSamuel Fritz founded 38 missions along the length of the Amazon river, between the Napo and Negro rivers, that were called the Omagua Missions.
These missions were continually attacked by the Brazilian Bandeirantes beginning in the year Inthe only Omagua mission that was left was San Joaquin de Omaguas, since it had been moved to a new location on the Napo river away from the Bandeirantes. In the immense territory of Mainas, also referred to as Maynas, the Jesuitas of Quito, made contact with a number of indigenous tribes which spoke 40 different languages, and founded a total of Jesuit missions with a total population ofinhabitants.
Because of the constant plague of epidemics smallpox and measles and warfare with other tribes and the Bandeirantes, the total number of Jesuit Missions were reduced to 40 by Struggle for independence and birth of the republic[ edit ] Main article: The Criollos' resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the Peninsulares was the fuel of revolution against colonial rule.
A group of Quito's leading citizens followed suit, and on August 10,they seized power in the name of Ferdinand from the local representatives, whom they accused of preparing to recognize Joseph Bonaparte. Thus, this early revolt against colonial rule one of the first in Spanish America was, paradoxically, an expression of loyalty to the Spanish king. It quickly became apparent that Quito's Criollo rebels lacked the anticipated popular support for their cause. As loyalist troops approached Quito, they peacefully turned power back to the crown authorities.
Despite assurances against reprisals, the returning Spanish authorities proved to be merciless with the rebels and, in the process of ferreting out participants in the Quito revolt, jailed and abused many innocent citizens.
In spite of strong opposition from the Quito Audiencia, the Junta called for a congress in December and declared the entire area of the audiencia to be independent of any government currently in Spain. Two months later, the Junta approved a constitution for the state of Quito that provided for democratic governing institutions but also granted recognition to the authority of Ferdinand should he return to the Spanish throne.
Omar Rayo - Wikipedia
Unlike the hapless Quito junta of a decade earlier, the Guayaquil patriots were able to appeal to foreign allies, Argentina and Gran Colombia, each of whom soon responded by sending sizable contingents to Ecuador.
A string of victories culminated in the decisive Battle of Pichincha. This status was maintained for eight tumultuous years. Map of the former Gran Colombia in named in its time as Colombiathe Gran Colombia covered all the colored region.
These were years in which warfare dominated the affairs of Ecuador. First, the country found itself on the front lines of Gran Colombia's efforts to liberate Peru from Spanish rule between and ; afterward, in andEcuador was in the middle of an armed struggle between Peru and Gran Colombia over the location of their common border.
The Treaty of fixed the border on the line that had divided the Quito audiencia and the Viceroyalty of Peru before independence. The population of Ecuador was divided during these years among three segments: The latter group was to prevail following Venezuela's withdrawal from Gran Colombia at the very moment that an constitutional congress had been called in an ultimately futile effort to stem the growing separatist tendencies throughout country.
In May of that year, a group of Quito notables met to dissolve the union with Gran Colombia, and in August, a constituent assembly drew up a constitution for the State of Ecuador, so named for its geographic proximity to the equator, and placed General Flores in charge of political and military affairs. He remained the dominant political figure during Ecuador's first 15 years of independence. The Republic of Ecuador[ edit ] The early republic[ edit ] Further information: As a leader, however, he appeared primarily interested in maintaining his power.
Military expenditures, from the independence wars and from an unsuccessful campaign to wrest Cauca Province from Colombia inkept the state treasury empty while other matters were left unattended. Discontent had become nationwide bywhen an insurrection in Guayaquil forced Flores from the country. Because their movement triumphed in March marzothe anti-Flores coalition members became known as marcistas.
They were an extremely heterogeneous lot that included liberal intellectuals, conservative clergymen, and representatives from Guayaquil's successful business community.
The next fifteen years constituted one of the most turbulent periods in Ecuador's century and a half as a nation. The marcistas fought among themselves almost ceaselessly and also had to struggle against Flores's repeated attempts from exile to overthrow the government. By — known by Ecuadorian historians as "the Terrible Year" — the nation was on the brink of anarchy.
Local caudillos had declared several regions autonomous of the central government, known as Jefaturas Supremas. This action was outrageous enough to unite some previously disparate elements.
The final push of this effort was the defeat of Franco's Peruvian-backed forces at the Battle of Guayaquilwhich led to the overturning of the Treaty of Mapasingue. The era of conservatism — [ edit ] Ecuador in Gabriel Garcia Moreno, considered the Father of Ecuadorian conservatism. The dictator's most outstanding critic was the liberal journalist, Juan Montalvowho exclaimed, "My pen killed him!
Production of cacao, the most important export product in the late 19th century, grew from 6. The agricultural export interests, centered in the coastal region near Guayaquil, became closely associated with the Liberals, whose political power also grew steadily during the interval. Ecuador in Further information: The new era brought in liberalism. Eloy Alfarounder whose direction the government headed out to aid those in the rural sectors of the coast, is credited for finishing the construction of the railroad connecting Guayaquil and Quito, the separation of church and state, establishment of many public schools, implementing civil rights such as freedom of speechand the legalization of civil marriages and divorce.
Alfaro was also confronted by a dissident tendency inside his own party, directed by its General Leonidas Plaza and constituted by the upper middle class of Guayaquil. His death was followed by economic liberalism —25when banks were allowed to acquire almost complete control of the country. Unlike all previous forays by the military into Ecuadorian politics, the coup of was made in the name of a collective grouping rather than a particular caudillo.
The members of the League of Young Officers came to power with an agenda, which included a wide variety of social reforms, deal with the failing economy, establish the Central Bank as the unique authorized bank to distribute currency, create a new system of budget and customs.
However, the only term he actually completed was his third from to Much of the century was also dominated by the territorial dispute between Peru and Ecuador. In Ecuador invaded Peruvian territory, and the Peruvians counterattacked and forced them to retreat into their own territory. At that time Ecuador was immersed in internal political fights and was not well equipped to win its offensive war. With the world at warEcuador attempted to settle the matter by means of a third-party settlement.
In Brazil the two countries' negotiations were overseen by four "Guarantor" states Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and the United States — four of the most powerful countries in the region. The protocol became the focus of a surge of Ecuadorian national pride and concomitant opposition, which resulted in an uprising and overthrow of the government. Arroyo partisans were promptly jailed or sent into exile, while Velasco verbally baited the business community and the rest of the political right.
The leftist elements within Velasco's Democratic Alliance, which dominated the constituent assembly that was convened to write a new constitution, were nonetheless destined to be disappointed.
After dismissing the assembly, Velasco held elections for a new assembly, which in drafted a far more conservative constitution that met with the president's approval.
For this brief period, Conservatives replaced the left as Velasco's base of support. Rather than attending to the nation's economic problems, however, Velasco aggravated them by financing the dubious schemes of his associates. Inflation continued unabated, as did its negative impact on the national standard of living, and by foreign exchange reserves had fallen to dangerously low levels.
In August, when Velasco was ousted by his minister of defense, nobody rose to defend the man who, only three years earlier, had been hailed as the nation's savior. During the following year, three different men briefly held executive power before Galo Plaza Lassorunning under a coalition of independent Liberals and socialists, narrowly defeated his Conservative opponent in presidential elections.
His inauguration in September initiated what was to become the longest period of constitutional rule since the —24 heyday of the Liberal plutocracy. Constitutional rule — [ edit ] Further information: History of Ecuador — Galo Plaza differed from previous Ecuadorian presidents by bringing a developmentalist and technocratic emphasis to Ecuadorian government.
No doubt Galo Plaza's most important contribution to Ecuadorian political culture was his commitment to the principles and practices of democracy. As president he promoted the agricultural exports of Ecuador, creating economic stability. During his presidency, an earthquake near Ambato severely damaged the city and surrounding areas and killed approximately 8, people.
Unable to succeed himself, he left his office in as the first president in 28 years to complete his term in office. A proof of the politically stabilizing effect of the banana boom of the s is that even Velasco, who in was elected president for the third time, managed to serve out a full four-year term. Velasco's fourth term in the presidency initiated a renewal of crisis, instability, and military domination and ended conjecture that the political system had matured or developed in a democratic mold.
Instability and military governments — [ edit ] Further information: There were impressive indicators of economic growth between and The government budget expanded some percent, whereas exports as well as per capita income increased a full percent. He was joint top scorer in the Copa Libertadores with eight goals, after Santos were beaten over two legs by eventual champions Corinthians in the semi-finals.
On 25 Augusthe scored a brace in the 2—1 away win at Palmeiras. He won the South American Footballer of the Yearretaining his award and winning it ahead of the likes of Ronaldinho.
Reports emerged in that Santos reached an agreement with Barcelona to sign him at a later stage. Neymar, however, rejected this in an interview, saying that he had "no agreement with Barcelona or anyone else". I'll leave when I want to. On 24 MaySantos announced that they had received two offers for Neymar. Neither Neymar nor the clubs released details on the transfer fee or personal terms, save to say he signed a five-year deal.
Neymar opened the scoring in Barcelona's 3—2 win. On 13 Septemberafter appearing as a substitute, Neymar scored his first two goals of the —15 seasonhelping Barcelona beat Athletic Bilbao 2—0. Barcelona manager Luis Enrique claimed that it had to be understood that such behaviour was acceptable in Brazil, while Neymar himself did not apologise. Domestic double Wikinews has related news: The club informed UEFA so that they can determine any disciplinary responsibilities that may arise from this case.
The situation was unusual, in that the fee was paid to the club directly, after La Liga had refused to receive the payment. They claimed they are owed money that Neymar received as part of a renewal bonus when he signed a new contract in The club also requested Paris Saint-Germain to take on the responsibility for the payment of the fees if the player cannot do so himself. Debut season and treble He made his debut for Les Rouge-et-Bleu on 13 August, netting a goal for himself and also setting up another in a 3—0 away victory over Guingamp.
He traveled to Belo Horizonte and underwent a successful operation on his foot.