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Main · Videos; Dating sites in manila dating the apprentice internet dating casa de contratacion sevilla yahoo dating casa de contratacion sevilla yahoo dating. Main · Videos; Lunar lotus festival dating sim cheats casa de contratacion sevilla yahoo dating casa de contratacion sevilla yahoo dating xchanging company. The Casa de Contratación or Casa de la Contratación de las Indias was established by the .. El piloto mayor de la Casa de la Contratación de Sevilla: pilotos mayores, catedráticos de cosmografía y cosmográfos. Seville: Escuela de Estudios.
This was built with marble from Malaga, and is very impressive with its name plaque and royal crest carved in relief. Upstairs, you can see maps dating from the 17th century of almost every Spanish colony, extending across the whole of Central and South America, and across to Asia: Exhibitions are often held in the Archivo, in the galleries around the central patio. As its name suggests, this houses four paintings by Goya, along with some 18th-century porcelain and 19th-century figures of indigenos natives.
These pieces have been donated by the family of the Duke of Montpensier Borbons considered by some to be heirs to the Mexican throne. Look out for the duck with exquisitely coloured plumage, the soup dish in the form of a salmon, and the wax figures of dancing Indians, complete with fabric clothes, headdresses and painted faces.
Just outside this room is a scale model of the Archive showing the annexe, called La Cilla, in a building to the side of the main Lonja, on Calle San Tomares.
The two premises are linked by an underground tunnel, and La Cilla is where the administrative headquarters, reading room, library and research areas are located. What documents does the Archive hold? There are 43, files in total, with 80 million pages of original documents dating back more than years.
They cover everything from the discovery, exploration and conquest of the New World, to political, social and economic history of the colonies; details of the pre-Colombian peoples in their natural state; commercial trade and maritime challenges; missionaries and the Inquisition. Anyone can visit the research room in La Cilla, on presentation of their ID and filling in a form.
There is also a search service for specific documents, and documents can be copied, for a fee. What documents are available on the internet? Many documentary resources are available online, with a large number of the documents now digitised using several databases.
PARES offers descriptions and images of countless documents held at the Archive, including maps, plans and drawings.
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There is a search facility so you can look for specific documents, by name and time period. Francisco Franco 's regime sought to provide for Spain's well-being by adopting a policy of economic self-sufficiency. Autarky was not merely a reaction to international isolation ; it was also rooted in more than half a century of advocacy from domestic economic pressure groups.
Furthermore, from toSpain's military chiefs genuinely feared an Allied invasion of the Peninsula and, therefore, sought to avert excessive reliance on foreign armaments. With the war devastation and trade isolation, Spain was much more economically backward in the s than it had been a decade earlier. Inflation soared, economic reconstruction faltered, food was scarce, and, in some years, Spain registered negative growth rates.
Then, after a decade of economic stagnation, a tripling of prices, the growth of a black marketand widespread deprivation, gradual improvement began to take place.
The regime took its first faltering steps toward abandoning its pretensions of self-sufficiency and towards a transformation of Spain's economic system. Pre-Civil War industrial production levels were regained in the early s, though agricultural output remained below prewar levels until A further impetus to economic liberalization came from the September signing of a mutual defense agreement, the Pact of Madridbetween the United States and Spain.
In return for permitting the establishment of United States military bases on Spanish soil, the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower administration provided substantial economic aid to the Franco regime. The years from to were marked by much economic progress, but the reforms of the period were implemented irregularly, and were poorly coordinated. One large obstacle to the reform process was the corrupt, inefficient, and bloated bureaucracy. The growing demands of the emerging middle class—and of the ever-greater number of tourists—for the amenities of life, particularly for higher nutritional standards, placed heavy demands on imported food and luxury items.
At the same time, exports lagged, largely because of high domestic demand and institutional restraints on foreign trade. A debate took place within the regime over strategies for extricating the country from its economic impasse, and Franco finally opted in favor of a group of neoliberals.
The group included bankers, industrial executives, some academic economists, and members of the Roman Catholic lay organization, Opus Dei. During the period, known as the pre-stabilization years, economic planners contented themselves with piecemeal measures such as moderate anti-inflationary stopgaps and increases in Spain's links with the world economy. A combination of external developments and an increasingly aggravated domestic economic crisis, however, forced them to engage in more far- reaching changes.
As the need for a change in economic policy became manifest in the late s, an overhaul of the Council of Ministers in February brought to the key ministries a group of younger men, most of whom possessed economics training and experience.
This reorganization was quickly followed by the establishment of a committee on economic affairs and the Office of Economic Coordination and Planning under the prime minister. Such administrative changes were important steps in eliminating the chronic rivalries that existed among economic ministries.
Other reforms followed, the principal one being the adoption of a corporate tax system that required the confederation of each industrial sector to allocate an appropriate share of the entire industry's tax assessment to each member firm. Chronic tax evasion was consequently made more difficult, and tax collection receipts rose sharply. Together with curbs on government spending, in this reform created the first government surplus in many years. More drastic remedies were required as Spain's isolation from the rest of Western Europe became exacerbated.
In the process of liberalizing trade among their members, these organizations found it difficult to establish economic relations with countries wedded to trade quotas and bilateral agreements, such as Spain. The "Spanish Miracle"[ edit ] Spanish membership in these groups was not politically possible, but Spain was invited to join a number of other international institutions.
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These bodies immediately became involved in helping Spain to abandon the autarkical trade practices that had brought its reserves to such low levels and that were isolating its economy from the rest of Europe. The plan's objectives were twofold: The plan's initial effect was deflationary and recessionary, leading to a drop in real income and to a rise in unemployment during its first year.
The resultant economic slump and reduced wages led approximatelySpanish workers to emigrate in search of better job opportunities in other West European countries. Nonetheless, its main goals were achieved.
Foreign capital investment grew sevenfold between andand the annual influx of tourists began to rise rapidly, bringing in very much needed foreign exchange along remittances from Spanish workers abroad. As these developments steadily converted Spain's economic structure into one more closely resembling a free-market economythe country entered the greatest cycle of industrialization and prosperity it had ever known.
The principal lubricants of the economic expansion, however, were the hard currency remittances of one million Spanish workers abroad, which are estimated to have offset By foreign capital represented More important than the actual size of the foreign investment was the access it gave Spanish companies to up to date technology.
An additional billion dollars came from foreign sources through a variety of loans and credit devices. SEAT Sport With foreign access to the Spanish domestic market restricted by heavy tariffs and quotas, these national companies led the industrialisation of the country, restoring the prosperity of old industrial areas like Barcelona and Bilbao and creating new industrial areas, most notably around Madrid. Although there was considerable economic liberalisation in the period these enterprises remained under state control.
The success of the stabilization program was attributable to a combination of good luck and good management and the impressive development during this period was referred to as the " Spanish miracle ".
Between andSpain had the next fastest economic growth rate after Japan. The boom came to an end with the oil shocks of the s and government instability during the transition back to democracy after Franco's death in The Post-Franco period, —s[ edit ] Franco's death in and the ensuing transition to democratic rule diverted Spaniards' attention from their economy.
Nonetheless, the interim centrist government of Adolfo Suarez Gonzalezwhich had been named to succeed the Franco regime by King Juan Carlosdid little to shore up the economy or even to reduce Spain's dependence on imported oil, although there was little that could be done as the country had little in the way of hydrocarbon deposits.
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A virtually exclusive preoccupation with the politics of democratization during the politically and socially unstable period when the new constitution was drafted and enacted, absorbed most of Spain's politics and administration at the expense of economic policy.
Because of the failure to adjust to the changed economic environment brought on by the two oil price shocks of the s, Spain quickly confronted plummeting productivity, an explosive increase in wages from toa reversal of migration trends as a result of the economic slump throughout Western Europe, and the steady outflow of labor from agricultural areas despite declining job prospects in the cities. All these factors contributed to a sharp rise in the unemployment rate. Government budgetary deficits swelled, as did large social security cost overruns and the huge operating losses incurred by a number of public-sector industries.
Energy consumption, meanwhile, remained high.
In coping with the situation, however, the Gonzalez government had one asset that no previous post-Franco government had enjoyed, namely, a solid parliamentary majority in both houses of the Cortes Spanish Parliament. With this majority, it was able to undertake unpopular austerity measures that earlier governments had not. The Socialist government opted for pragmatic, orthodox monetary and fiscal policies, together with a series of vigorous retrenchment measures.
In it unveiled a program that provided a more coherent and long-term approach to the country's economic ills. Renovative structural policies—such as the closing of large, unprofitable state enterprises—helped to correct the relatively poor performance of the economy.
The government launched an industrial reconversion program, brought the problem-ridden social security system into better balance, and introduced a more efficient energy-use policy. Labor market flexibility was improved, and private capital investment was encouraged with incentives. Real wage growth was contained, and it was generally kept below the rate of inflation. Inflation was reduced to 4.
Efforts to modernize and to expand the economy together with a number of factors fostered strong economic growth in the s. Those factors were the continuing fall in oil prices, increased tourism, and a massive upsurge in the inflow of foreign investment.
Thus, despite the fact that the economy was being exposed to foreign competition in accordance with EC requirements, the Spanish economy underwent rapid expansion without experiencing balance of payments' constraints.
In the words of the OECD's survey of the Spanish economy, "following a protracted period of sluggish growth with slow progress in winding down inflation during the late s and the first half of the s, the Spanish economy has entered a phase of vigorous expansion of output and employment accompanied by a marked slowdown of inflation. The following year, however, Spain's real GDP began to grow strongly, registering a growth rate of 3.
Although these growth rates were less than those of the economic miracle years, they were among the strongest of the OECD. Analysts projected a rise of 3. They expected that declining interest rates and the government's stimulative budget would help sustain economic expansion. Industrial output, which rose by 3.
During andanalysts expected demand to remain strong, though at slightly lower levels. In the mids, Spain achieved a strong level of economic performance while simultaneously lowering its rate of inflation to within two points of the EC average. However, its export performance, though increasing, raised concerns over the existing imbalance between import and export growth.